Journal of Nursing

Does kangaroo mother care improve preterm infant's temperature?

Ragaa gasim Ahmed


Abstract: Kangaroo mother care is a method of care of preterm infants (before 37 completed weeks of gestation). The method involves infants being carried, usually by the mother, with skin-to-skin contact. This improves stability of preterm infant temperature. The aim of the study: To investigate the effect of kangaroo mother care on preterm infant’s temperature  in a neonatal intensive care unit  at the Khartoum teaching hospital - Sudan. Methodology: The study design was Nonequivalent Groups Design  (a pretest-posttest randomized experiment), 120 mother-preterm infant pairs were selected through purposive sampling. Subjects: The target population for this study were all medically stable preterm infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at the time of the study.  Preterm infants of gestational age 30–36 weeks (n=120), 60 intervention groups received KMC and another 60 were control group received conventional care. The researcher was available five days per week, five hours per day from 9 am to 2pm. The average number of cases that was taken per week ranged from8 to 10 premature infants and their mothers. Setting: This study was conducted in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)  in Khartoum teaching hospital. Tools: The tools of study divided into two tools; Tool I: Questionnaire was used to collect the demographic data related to preterm infants and their mothers in the intervention and control group, and auxiliary temperature before and after kangaroo mother care for intervention group and also done for control group in conventional care. Tool II: Mercury thermometer.  The results: Independent–sample t test was calculated and showed that there is a significant difference regarding the mother's age, and preterm infant weight  (P-value = .06 & . 00) Respectively. And there  is no significant difference regarding preterm infants gestational age, and preterm infants age since birth (P-value = .82 & . 50) respectively.  Mothers' educational level the majority were secondary school, (40.83%), and the lowest were intermediate school (11.67%). The majority of preterm gender were male (60%), and the other was female (40%). Regarding preterm infant's temperature, independent–sample t test  showed that there is no significant difference between intervention and control group before KMC (P-value = .86). And there is a significant difference  between intervention and control group after KMC (P-value = .01). Paired sample test investigate that,  there is a significant difference regarding  the level of temperature for intervention group before and after KMC (P-value:. 000). Conclusion: KMC was effective and positively promoted premature infant's temperature  than those cared by the conventional care. Recommendation: Educational training program for all neonatal nurses in skills necessary to implement the KMC and further studies should be conducted to assess the neonatal nurses' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding KMC.

Abbreviations: Skin to Skin Contact (SSC), World Health Organization (WHO), Kangaroo Care (KC), Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC), Gestational Age (GA).

Keywords: kangaroo mother care, preterm infants, temperature.





Kangaroo mother care, Preterm infants, Temperature

Full Text:



Heidelise Als, and Gloria B. McAnulty. (2011). The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) with Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC): Comprehensive Care for Preterm Infants. Curr Womens Health Rev. 7 (3): 288–301.

Anne-Marie Bergh, Joseph de Graft-Johnson, Neena Khadka, et al. (2016). The three waves in implementation of facility-based kangaroo mother care: a multi-country case study from Asia. BMC International Health and Human Rights. 16:4.

Anita J. Mitchell, Charlotte C. Yates, D. Keith Williams, et al. (2013). Does Daily Kangaroo Care Provide Sustained Pain and Stress Relief in Preterm Infants?. J Neonatal Perinatal Med; 6(1): 45–52.

Anita J. Mitchell, Charlotte Yates, Keith Williams, and Richard W Hall. (2013). Effects of Daily Kangaroo Care on Cardiorespiratory Parameters in Preterm Infants. J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 6(3): 243–249.

Afaf A Korraa, Alyaa A I El Nagger, Ragaa Abd El-Salam Mohamed and Noha M Helmy. (2014). Impact of kangaroo mother care on cerebral blood flow of preterm infants. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 40:83.

Ann L Jefferies; Canadian Paediatric Society, Fetus and Newborn Committee. (2012). Kangaroo care for the preterm infant and Family. Paediatr Child Health, Vol 17 No 3.

Laila Kristoffersen, Ragnhild Støen, Hilde Rygh, Margunn Sognnæs, et al. (2016). Early skin-to-skin contact or incubator for very preterm infants: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 7:593.

Boundy EO, Dastjerdi R, Spiegelman D, et al. (2016). Kangaroo Mother Care and Neonatal Outcomes: A Meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 137(1):e20152238.

Marsha L Campbell-Yeo, Timothy C Disher, Britney L Benoit, and C Celeste Johnston. (2015). Understanding kangaroo care and its benefits to preterm infants. Pediatric Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 6 15–32.

Elizabeth R Moore, Gene C Anderson, Nils Bergman, and Therese Dowswell. (2014). Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. ; 5: CD003519. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003519.pub3.

Vesel et al. (2015). Kangaroo mother care: a multi-country analysis of health system bottlenecks and potential solutions. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 15(Suppl 2):S5.

Cynthia Ribeiro do Nascimento Nunes, Luís Gustavo Campos, Aline Moreira Lucena, et al. (2017). Relationship between the use of kangaroo position on preterm babies and mother‑child interaction upon discharge. Rev Paul Pediatr. 35(2):136-143.

Grace J Chan, Amy S Labar, Stephen Wallb & Rifat Atuna. (2015). Kangaroo mother care: a systematic review of barriers and enablers. Bull World Health Organ. 94:130–141.

Rafael Moura Miranda, José Eulálio Cabral Filho, Kaísa Trovão Diniz, et al. (2014). Electromyographic activity of preterm newborns in the kangaroo position: a cohort study. BMJ Open. 4:e005560.

Tully et al. (2016). A Test of Kangaroo Care on Preterm Infant Breastfeeding. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 45(1): 45–61.

Whitney Stuard. (2016). The Effects of Kangaroo Care on a Newborn Development and Vital Physiology. Clinics Mother Child Health. 13:1.

Emily R. Smith, Ilana Bergelson, Stacie Constantian, et al. (2017). Barriers and enablers of health system adoption of kangaroo mother care: a systematic review of caregiver perspectives. BMC Pediatrics 17:35.

Manani et al. (2013). Elimination of Admission Hypothermia in Preterm Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants by Standardization of Delivery Room Management. Perm J 17(3):8-13.

Smita Roychoudhury, Kamran Yusuf. (2017). Thermoregulation: Advances in Preterm Infants. NeoReviews • DOI: 10.1542/neo.18-12-e692.

Mitra Edraki, Maryam Paran, Sedigheh Montaseri, et al. (2014). Comparing the Effects of Swaddled and Conventional Bathing Methods on Body Temperature and Crying Duration in Premature Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Caring Sciences, 3(2), 83-91.

Robin B. Knobel, Diane Holditch-Davis, NursingTodd A. Schwartz, and HillJohn E. Wimmer Jr. (2009). Extremely Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants Lack Vasomotor Response in Relationship to Cold Body Temperatures at Birth. J Perinatol. 29 (12): 814–821.

Leila Valizadeh, Majid Mahallei, Abdolrasoul Safaiyan, Fatemeh Ghorbani, and Maryam Peyghami. (2017). Comparison of the Effect of Plastic Cover and Blanket on Body Temperature of Preterm Infants Hospitalized in NICU: Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Caring Sciences, 6 (2), 163-172.

Er-Mei Chen, Meei-Ling Gau, Chieh-Yu Liu, and Tzu-Ying Lee.(2017). Effects of Father-Neonate Skin-to-Skin Contact on Attachment: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Hindawi, Nursing Research and Practice, Volume 2017, Article ID 8612024, 8 pages

Leila Sarparast, Roya Farhadi, Maryam Sarparast, Shabnam Shafai. (2015). The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Neonatal Outcomes in Iranian Hospitals: A Review. J Pediatr Rev. 3(1):e195.

Luigi Corvaglia, Silvia Martini, Giacomo Faldella. (2013). Breastfeeding the preterm infant. Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine 2(2):e020209.

Almeida CM, Almeida AFN, Forti EMP. (2007). Efects of Kangaroo mother care on the vital signs of low-weight preterm newborns. BJPT. Rev. bras. fisioter. vol.11 no.1 São Carlos.

Alpanamayi Bera, Jagabandhu Ghosh, Arun Kumarendu Singh, et al. (2014). Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Vital Physiological Parameters of The Low Birth Weight Newborn. Indian J Community Med. 39(4): 245–249.

Nahed Saied Mohammed El- Nagger, Hoda Abed El-Azim, and Sahar Mahmoud Zaki Hassan. (2013). Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Premature Infants’ Physiological, Behavioral and Psychosocial Outcomes in Ain Shams Maternity and Gynecological Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. Life Science Journal. 10(1).

Florent Fuchs, Barbara Monet, Thierry Ducruet, Nils Chaillet, and Francois Audibert. (2018). Effect of maternal age on the risk of preterm birth: A large cohort study. PLoS One. 13(1): e0191002.

Ruiz et al (2015). Mother's education and the risk of preterm and small for gestational age birth: a DRIVERS meta-analysis of 12 European cohorts. J Epidemiol Community Health;0:1–8. doi:10.1136/jech-2014-205387.

Khadijeh Dehghani, Zahra Pour Movahed, Hamideh Dehghani, Khadijeh Nasiriani. (2015). A Randomized Controlled Trial of Kangaroo Mother Care Versus Conventional Method on Vital Signs and Arterial Oxygen Saturation Rate in Newborns Who were Hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Journal of Clinical Neonatology | Vol. 4 | Issue 1.

P. Astolfi L.A. Zonta. (1999). Risks of preterm delivery and association with maternal age, birth order, and fetal gender. Human Reproduction, Volume 14, Issue 11, Pages 2891–2894,

Verma P, Verma V. (2014). Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Heart rate, Respiratory rate and Temperature in Low Birth Weight Babies. International Journal of Medical Research and Review. Vol 2, No 02.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Ragaa gasim Ahmed

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.