Journal of Nursing

Qualitative Study on Nutrition and Immune-Mediated Adverse Events in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Immunotherapy in Hainan Province

Wen Wen, Yingshuang Chen, Hua Zhang


Objective To gain an in-depth understanding of the nutritional and immune adverse event perceptions and needs of immunotherapy patients with hepatocellular carcinomain Hainan province, with the aim of providing a basis for developing a model for thefull management of adverse event symptoms and nutrition in immunotherapy patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods Using the phenomenological research method in qualitative research, 13 immunotherapy patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were interviewed in depth in asemi-structured manner, and the interview data were analyzed by the Colaizzi's 7-stepmethod on phenomenological data with the Nvivo10 software. Result Four themes were summarized: multiple factors to undernutrition; adverse event of immune; ignorance the correlation of immune adverse event and nurtrition; the way to acquiring nutrition and immune adverse event was diverse; timely, professional data-based and continuous guidance was needed. Conclusion Despite the adverse event of immunotherapy patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, we should pay attention to the nutritional needs and the treatment of adverse immune events in physiological, social, psychological and environmental asperc, to achieve a multi-form educational intervention mode with self-management and establish a feasible high-quality, efficient and sustainable whole-course management mode.


Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Immunotherapy; Nutrition; Immune-Mediated Adverse Events; Qualitative Study

Full Text:


Included Database


Jiang J, Hu ZQ, Chen G, et al. Advances in translational therapy for primary liver cancer[J]. Journal of Clinical Hepatobiliary Diseases,2020,36(08):1870-1873.

Jiang Y, Tu X, Zhang X, et al. Nutrition and metabolism status alteration in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with anti-PD-1 immunotherapy[J]. Supportive Care in Cancer, 2020, 28(6):1-11.

Zhang XY, Lin C, Rui MY, et al. Correlation of prognosis and nutritional factors in patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated with pablizumab[J]. Chinese Oncology Clinics,2022,49(17):892-896.

Wen W, Zhang Y, Zhang H, et al. Clinical outcomes of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis[J]. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, 2022:1-10.

Li YJ, Zhang FY, Wan TL, et al. Analysis of current dietary knowledge and attitudes and factors influencing dietary knowledge literacy among Chinese people aged ≥18 years[J]. China Public Health,2019,35(09):1267-1270.

Ja A, Pb B, Vb C, et al. ESPEN guidelines on nutrition in cancer patients[J]. Clinical Nutrition, 2017, 36( 1):11-48.

Wu HL, Niu XK, Xiong Y, et al. Current status and research progress of immunotherapy for hepatocellular liver cancer[J]. Chinese Journal of Immunology, 2021.

Tang Y. A study of supportive care needs and quality of life based on patient-reported outcomes in gynecologic cancer chemotherapy [D]. Lanzhou University, 2018.

Zhu R, Huang QM, Cai TT, et al. Progress in the application of patient-reported outcome measurement information system in different oncology care[J]. Journal of Continuing Nurse Education,2021,36(05):405-408.

Song LJ, Ma XJ Wu XY, et al. Current status of patient-reported outcome assessment tools for targeted drug skin adverse events[J]. World TCM, 2021, 16(13):5.

Huang Y, Xie M, Wang JW. Immunonutrition in radiotherapy of gastrointestinal malignancies[J]. Electronic Journal of Tumor Metabolism and Nutrition, 2022, 9(04): 524-529.

Xu L, Zhang JW, Ge ZX. Evaluation of the effect of "317 nursing" WeChat health education assistant in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease[J]. Journal of Nursing Practice,2019,34(10):890-894.

Jiang XM, Hao JY, Chen Y, et al. Development of a structured treatment and education curriculum for glycemic management of diabetic patients on peritoneal dialysis[J]. China Nursing Management,2019,19(02):269-275.

Wang XL. Study on the application of exercise self-management based on patient-reported outcomes in patients with first-ever ischemic stroke[D]. Huzhou Normal University, 2020.

Tang CQ. Nutritional screening tools and evaluation tools for tertiary diagnosis of malnutrition in primary liver cancer[J]. Electronic Journal of Oncology Metabolism and Nutrition, 2019, 6(01):120-124.

Shi HP, Xu HX, Li SY, et al. Five-step treatment of malnutrition[J], Electronic Journal of Oncology Metabolism and Nutrition, 2015, 15(1):29-33.

Zhao J, Su CH. Interpretation of the CSCO Guidelines for the Management of Toxicity Associated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors:Comparison of the NCCN Guidelines for the Management of Toxicity Associated with Immunotherapy[J]. Journal of Practical Oncology,2020,35(01):11-15.

Liu LH, Li WR, Tian HM, et al. Practice and effectiveness of oncology rehabilitation nursing clinic in the development of oncology specialty nursing[J]. China Nursing Management, 2021, 21(02): 167-171.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Wen Wen, Yingshuang Chen, Hua Zhang

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.